New Study on Lowering Sodium and Increasing Percolation

Filed under: News — admin @ 5:39 pm

Below is the text to a report done on a Phoenix area golf course by a third party Agronomist Consulting Firm. It shows among other things that the use of Mountain High Waters System Lowers Sodium, and Increases Percolation. The report below is missing graphs, to get an is easier to read report with graphs click here for a The Report in a PDF format.

Phoenix Area Golf Course: Interpretation #1 of Ongoing

Testing to Monitor Ozone & Oxygen Diffusion 

Initial Tests Taken On September 8, 2009

Follow-up Tests Taken December 7, 2009

A. Standard Soil Tests

1. Sodium: Our September ’09 tests indicated that the harmful element, sodium, was found at unacceptably high levels. The December ’09 tests, following three months of ozone diffusion, showed a dramatic drop in sodium.Sodium is measured in two ways on a soil test: by actual amount (Ibs. per acre) and as a percentage of all the major elements in the soil that carry a positive charge (cations). The latter is also referred to as the ‘percent base saturation.’ 

For example, looking at #5T, in September the amount of sodium was 616 Ibs./acre. By December the amount had dropped to 378 Ibs./acre.(Ideal soil sodium levels are below 500 Ibs./acre.) When viewed as a percent of base saturation, the sodium on #5T dropped from 5.76% to 4.19%, a substantial drop over a three month period. (Acceptable sodium levels as a percent of base saturation are below 8%.) This sort of sodium reduction was consistent throughout all playing surfaces tested; please click here to see this report.  

2. Soluble Sulfur:The soil tests also reveal a dramatic reduction in soluble sulfur between September and December. Sulfur is a highly soluble element that leaches down through the soil profile readily if the soil is conducive to leaching (drainage). Sulfur is widely accepted in academic circles as a barometer for how good or bad the soil drainage is. This particular test result is the most positive indicator of improved drainage observed in any of the testing. 

Again, looking at #5T as an example, soluble sulfur in September was measured at 114 parts per million. By December this had dropped to 37 parts per million. Ideal sulfur levels are below 40 ppm, so this represents a dramatic improvement. 

Please click here to see this report with a graph that shows a significant decrease in sulfur levels on all surfaces tested. A decrease in soluble sulfur is an increase in percolation.This can be interpreted many different ways. Mainly it shows the ability to leach out harmful contaminates in irrigation water while allowing turf to up take nutrients easier. This increases root depth and mass by not only allowing oxygen, nitrogen, and nutrients to get  to the roots, but by ozone chelating elements like calcium so turf can uptake them more readily. 

B. Saturated Soil Analysis (also called “saturated paste extract tests”)  

1.      A Review of the ‘Saturated Paste Test’: The primary benefit of saturated paste tests is to measure the amount of salts in the soil which can be expressed as either “electrical conductivity” (E.C.), or “total dissolved salts” (TDS). 

This test also measures bicarbonate levels in the soil. Bicarbonates cause no harm to plant growth by themselves, but excessive bicarbonates do make it significantly more difficult to reduce unwanted sodium from the soil through standard management practices.

Finally, while soil sodium measurements are considered less credible on a saturated paste test than when measured in a standard soil test, there are, nonetheless, two meaningful measurements of the sodium hazard to be found on the paste test.

The first is the base saturation percentage of sodium. Ideally sodium, as a percent base saturation on a saturated paste test, should always be maintained below 35%. The other measurement of the sodium hazard is the sodium adsorption ratio or S.A.R. This sodium measurement should be maintained below 4.0.

2. Comparative Results Using Saturated Paste Testing: September ’09 – December ’09

 Levels of salts declined (improved) between September and December on all playing surfaces tested.

 The sodium hazard, when measured as S.A.R., also improved on all playing surfaces. The other sodium measurement, “sodium as a percent of base saturation” improved on #5F between September and December but remained the same on #5T and #5G. 

C. Tissue Tests  

It is still too early to draw to many conclusions from the plant tissue test, although there was a noticeable increase in nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium.This is a benefit of the chelation process that is created by ozonation. The following are the mean test results for the most essential nutrients.

Please click here to see this report with the average changes between September ‘09 and December ‘09 of:

 Nitrogen (Note, this elemnet increased)

Phosphorous (Note, this elemnet increased)

Potassium (Note, this elemnet increased)






Please click here to see this report with a chart that shows the difference between plant tissue in September (before MHW system) versus plant tissue in December (after MHW system). Notice that there was a significant increase in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. All of those nutrients were low in September and now they are at a good level. Calcium, magnesium, and sulfur stayed the same, at acceptable levels. 

D. Irrigation Water  

1.      Special Irrigation Water Testing: Dissolved Oxygen and Fecal Coliform.

 Two environmental tests were conducted on the water: “dissolved oxygen” and “fecal coliform,” each showing positive progress. Keep in mind that even the preliminary September tests showed both measurements were already well within acceptable levels. 

With dissolved oxygen, we have three test results: September (lake water); December (lake water); and December (irrigation water, with high ozone content). Both the September lake test results and the December lake test showed less dissolved oxygen in the water than the December irrigation test WITH ozone. As for fecal coliform, improvement also occurred. The highest reading was the September lake test, the December lake test showed a lower fecal coliform reading; and the December irrigation test with ozone was the lowest of the three.

 A reduction in fecal coliform is directly related to a reduction in algae. Also, an increase in dissolved oxygen is directly related to a reduction in algae, along with a healthier water environment. All water tests show progress in the right direction to eliminating lake algae.

 E. Summary

 1. Soluble sulfur, an excellent barometer of soil drainage, dropped precipitously between September and December, demonstrating that the soil had become more conducive to the downward movement (leaching) of water and soluble nutrients. The decline in total dissolved salts confirms this improvement in leaching/drainage.

 2. Unwanted sodium and salts, the two most serious soil chemical problems on irrigated Arizona soils, were reduced significantly between September and December.

 3. The irrigation water contained an increased amount of dissolved oxygen in December when compared to September.

 4.The irrigation water contained a reduced amount of fecal coliform in December when compared to September.

 5. Future testing:

  1. Although there are many positive results in such a short time, further testing is still needed. Two further rounds of testing will be implemented. At the completion of those tests there will be a much clearer picture.